In applied psychology, interventions are actions performed to bring about change in people. A wide range of intervention strategies exist and they are directed towards various types of issues. Most generally, it means any activities used to modify behavior, emotional state, or feelings. Psychological interventions have many different applications and the most common use is for the treatment of mental disorders, most commonly using psychotherapy.
The ultimate goal behind these interventions is not only to alleviate symptoms but also to target the root cause of mental disorders.
Psychological interventions can also be used to promote good mental health in order to prevent mental disorders. These interventions are not tailored towards treating a condition but are designed to foster healthy emotions, attitudes and habits. Such interventions can improve quality of life even when mental illness is not present.
Interventions can be diverse and can be tailored specifically to the individual or group receiving treatment depending on their needs. This versatility adds to their effectiveness in addressing all kinds of situations.
Psychotherapy, also known as talk therapy, promotes a relationship between a trained psychotherapist and a person suffering from a psychological disorder.
Positive activity interventions (PAIs) are a part of positive psychology. Psychological interventions include a wide array of behavioral and psychotherapeutic treatments designed to reduce psychological distress and maladaptive behavior and to increase adaptive behavior, typically through Counselling, support, interaction, or instruction.
Psychological treatments have traditionally been administered largely by professionals with specialized therapy training (e.g., psychiatrists, psychologists, clinical social workers) who work in mental health or psychiatric settings (e.g., inpatient psychiatric hospitals, outpatient mental health clinics).
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) have demonstrated efficacy for reducing pain and improving function in patients with a broad spectrum of pain-related conditions and have become the most commonly cited alternatives to traditional medical and rehabilitation approaches to chronic pain management. The overarching goal of CBT for chronic pain is to assist patients in the development of an adaptive self-management approach to pain management based on a conceptualization of pain as controllable and a personal attitude of self-efficacy and self-control.
CBT is a structured, time-limited, and goal-oriented therapeutic approach that can be delivered in either small groups or individual outpatient sessions. Therapy usually involves 6-12 outpatient treatment sessions during which a range of cognitive (e.g., attention diversion, development of coping self-statements) and behavioral (e.g., activity pacing, mental relaxation, and other stress reduction) pain-coping skills are taught
Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) is a cognitive and behavioral therapy with roots in relational frame theory, a comprehensive theory of human language and cognition that derives from behavioral analysis (Hayes, Follette, & Linehan, 2004). The clinical target of ACT is to encourage and increase psychological flexibility by introducing mindfulness and acceptance-based strategies as well as behavior change strategies. Whereas CBT approaches instruct patients in skills to change thoughts, sensations, and memories, ACT focuses on recognizing these internal experiences in a nonevaluative manner and continuing to engage in behaviors that serve valued ends
Psychological intervention may be required to alleviate extreme anxiety, emotional stress, and other depressive states. Promotion of the use of positive coping strategies and mature defense mechanisms for dealing with the losses associated with the onset of significant visual impairment is often the focus of such intervention (Fagerstrom, 1992; Zarit, 1992). Both professional Counselling and participation in specifically constructed support groups have proven beneficial for these purposes.